It started in Oregon with the breaking of “A Tainted High.” It then moved to Colorado with 19 marijuana and marijuana product recalls in 19 weeks in 2015. Washington then overhauled its pesticide program to prevent illegal pesticides on its regulated cannabis products (which eventually led to the state adopting recall rules). Now, California is finally learning how dangerous its cannabis can be, and its only a matter of time before California state regulators use the Medical Cannabis Regulation and Safety Act (“MCRSA“) and Adult Use of Marijuana Act (“AUMA“) to institute regulations to reduce the use of toxic and harmful marijuana pesticides.
Since none of California’s existing medical marijuana laws mandate any kind of quality assurance or pesticide testing, California cannabis patients have been taking their chances that their medicine is safe for consumption. You will be hard-pressed to find medical marijuana dispensaries in California that follow Proposition 65, which added marijuana smoke to its list of potentially cancer-causing products in 2009.
But that’s all about to change.
AB 266 of the MCSRA requires medical cannabis be tested:
Medical cannabis and medical cannabis products shall be tested by a registered testing laboratory, prior to retail sale or dispensing, as follows: Medical cannabis from dried flower shall, at a minimum, be tested for concentration, pesticides, mold, and other contaminants.
The United States Environmental Protection Agency has not established appropriate pesticide tolerances for, or permitted the registration and lawful use of, pesticides on cannabis crops intended for human consumption pursuant to the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (7 U.S.C. 136 et seq.). The use of pesticides is not adequately regulated due to the omissions in federal law, and cannabis cultivated in California for California patients can and often does contain pesticide residues. Lawful California medical cannabis growers and caregivers urge the Department of Pesticide Regulation to provide guidance, in absence of federal guidance, on whether the pesticides currently used at most cannabis cultivation sites are actually safe for use on cannabis intended for human consumption.
Under the MCRSA, California’s Department of Pesticide Regulation (DPR), in consultation with the Department of Food and Agriculture (DFA), is charged with developing standards for using pesticides in cannabis cultivation and “the maximum tolerances for pesticides and other foreign object residue in harvested cannabis.” And the DPR, in consultation with the State Water Resources Control Board, must promulgate pesticide regulations for indoor and outdoor cultivating of medical cannabis equivalent to existing standards of the Food and Agricultural Code.
All of this will eventually make California the most conscientious state on both marijuana pesticides and cannabis’s impact on the environment. Each regional water board and the State Water Resources Control Board may address water waste and discharge of pesticides and herbicides, which is far more than any other state has done, despite cannabis’s obvious environmental impacts. As far as adult use cannabis pesticide testing goes, the AUMA mandates compliance with the pesticide regulations set forth under the MCRSA by the Bureau of Medical Cannabis Regulation.
We do not yet know what California’s pesticide and testing regulations will look like in final form, but we’re sure to find out in late April when the Bureau will release its first set of draft MCRSA regulations. But our cannabis lawyer’s vast experience in regulated marijuana states tells us that you should, at minimum, expect mandatory analyses of the following:
- Microbiological screenings;
- Foreign matter inspection;
- Residual solvent tests; and
- Pesticide and other chemical residue and metals screening.
Though pricey for both the state and for marijuana businesses, mandatory cannabis testing is necessary to give California’s cannabis customers confidence in the state’s marijuana marketplace. The State of California will set the floor for consumer safety through quality assurance testing (and packaging and labeling rules) and all California marijuana businesses should prepare now for the consequences of potentially faulty testing, products liability claims (including against retailers), and start developing their own recall plans.