Commercial cannabis leases are different than other commercial leases in many important ways. In other respects, however, they can be quite similar. One item that tends to fall into the latter category is the creation of a landlord’s lien on the tenant’s personal property in the event of an uncured tenant default. For example, if a marijuana producer fails to pay rent, the landlord acquires an ownership interest in that producer’s lights, fans, security equipment, and even the cannabis itself. If the lease is drawn up correctly, the landlord would then be able to seize these assets and liquidate them, in accordance with state law.
When representing landlords, this type of provision makes it into every type of cannabis lease we draft. When representing tenants, we often try to narrow this right, especially in situations where the tenant may be taking on debt. Why? Because lenders often insist on priority rights in the event that a pot business cannot repay a loan. In many cases, the lender will come prepared with a “Waiver and Consent Agreement” or a “Subordination and Consent Agreement.” The tenant is tasked with acquiring its landlord’s signature on this contract, so that if there is a default under the lease, the landlord does not preempt the lender’s rights in the tenant’s property (which serves as collateral for the loan).
From the landlord’s perspective, subordinating its lien on the tenant’s personal property is preferred to a total waiver of the lien. The lender won’t care either way, so long as it receives a primary security interest in the cannabis and everything else. For that reason, most of the time the parties will end up with the landlord agreeing that its lien is subordinate to the lender’s right, but not totally extinguished (“waived”). That way, the landlord is assured that its tenant will receive the cash needed to operate, and will retain the right to hop in line behind the lender and lien on any assets, as needed.
Landlords should be aware that the waiver or subordination agreement will typically allow the lender to enter the leased premises and remove the trade fixtures and even the marijuana itself, subject to state rules. On this point, the landlord will want to require that the lender minimize disturbance with respect to any other tenants on site, and require that removal occur prior to the end of the lease term. Once the lender is in the space, the landlord will want to ensure that the lender is required to comply with state marijuana rules, provide evidence of insurance, and keep the premises open for inspection, among other items.
There are a host of other concerns that a boilerplate consent or subordination document will create in the context of a cannabis loan to a tenant operator. These range from specific items, like the landlord’s obligation to notify the lender of a tenant’s default, to general items, like restrictions on the ability of a landlord and tenant to amend the lease agreement. Depending on which chair you are in—landlord, tenant or lender—these items will have different repercussions and should be negotiated with that in mind.
Each party’s goal, as always, will be to minimize risk and to maximize the ability to make and receive payments, in accordance with state and local rules. If you understand the basics of cannabis leases, lender subordination agreements, and your state’s disclosure requirements for cannabis lenders, you should be able to propose a contract solution that works for everyone. That way, in the event of a default under a loan or lease, the parties won’t have to fight over what happens next.